Senate Facebook Hearings

The hearing today reminds me of digital discovery pre-Zubulake – bunch of folks who I suspect might be investigating edgy technologies to ditch cuneiform script making rulings regarding how search and seizure case-law applies to electronic data. Not terribly encouraging that they intend to draft legislation controlling … what? Digital privacy in general? Social media platforms? Here’s hoping a good number of Congresspersons take Scheindlin’s initiative to educate themselves about that on which they seek to rule.

Something that stands out to me is how much of the platform’s operations, litigation, and regulation about which Zuckerberg claims not to know anything. I get not wanting to provide an answer that looks bad for your company, not wanting to provide inaccurate information in a Congressional hearing … but I expected they would have come up with a more reasonable boilerplate fob off answer than, essentially, “I don’t know about that stuff”

The anti-trust thread is an interesting path to go down, although I doubt Graham will follow that path. Shame, too. I had great hopes for Google+ — backed by a company with enough money to compete, enhancing Google’s current ad platform, and the idea of circles to provide granular control of who can see what. An idea which would have vastly limited the impact here. In Google+, I could avoid sharing a lot of personal information with vague acquaintances and distant family members. Heck, close family too if they’re the types who are always downloading rubbish and infecting their computer.

Consumerism and advertising is a priori accepted as a good thing. Not shocking, considering the way of American society, but it really stood out to me throughout the testimony that no one questions the benefit of having stuff more effectively marketed, to having ads that are more apt to result in a sale. They’ve spent enormous sums of money, dedicated incredible human capital to delivering an ad that is more likely to show a shirt I like. Why is that a good thing? I have clothes. If I needed more, I would either go to a store or search online. I understand why a business wants to sell me a shirt … but how is more effectively separating me from my earnings a personal boon??

And the American public is having a good self-education week. There’s interest in taint teams from Cohen yesterday, and today we’re understanding the actual business model of large tech companies — the nuance between “selling my data” and “using my data to form advertising profiles and sell my services in presenting advertising based on those advertising profiles”. Back when the ISPs wanted to be able to commoditize web history, I encountered a lot of uproar about literally selling someone’s browsing history. Which – and no offense meant – your browsing history? Not a thrilling read. Taking your browsing history and turning it into profiles, then using those profiles to sell services presenting ads to customers. Objecting to “selling my data” provides a strawman for the companies to tear down (as Zuckerberg did several times with “we don’t do that”).

Hopefully people are gaining a more complete understanding of what information is available through the “Facebook Platform” … and that you are trusting not just Facebook but the other company to act in good faith regarding your privacy. When the ToS says they may sell data or analytics to a third party … well, they may well do that. What does that third party do with the data? How much control can you, Facebook, or the app developer exert over the data sold to the third party? Not a whole lot.

Finally – the bigger question that doesn’t get asked … how can Americans insulate themselves from having personal information used to foment discontent? How can we get better and analyzing “news” and identifying real fake news. Not Trump-style FAKE NEWS which basically means “something I don’t like hearing” but actual disinformation.

Warrants And Attorney Client Priviledge

I assume that like many other obscure laws and procedures with which the general population has become familiar over the past year (seriously, how many people knew what the Emoluments Clause, Hatch Act, or the Jones Act were two years ago?), ‘taint team’ shall now enter the public discourse. And the crime-fraud exception to attorney client privilege. And the fact that being an attorney does not automatically privilege everything said in a thousand foot radius around you.

For those who didn’t spend some time immersed in the nuances of electronic discovery law, a taint team is essentially a team involved in the investigation to serve as an air-gap protecting privileged information. Seize documents from a lawyer’s office, and something is bound to be protected. So the individuals involved in the investigation are not the ones to initially review seized documents. A team of investigators unrelated to the case review to filter out privileged communications (and, I assume, irrelevant documents). This is essentially privacy theater – should the taint team encounter some other illegal activity in the course of document review, it will not be ignored.

Which brings us to the crime-fraud exception to attorney client privilege — while a client is free to communicate with their attorney in many ways, asking one’s lawyer how to commit a crime (or how to cover up a crime) is not protected communication. If documents about laundering Russian money through Trump properties since the mid 1980’s (after 18 U.S.C. §§ 1956-1957 were enacted) are obtained from Cohen’s office … well, the documents have been obtained and privilege does not apply.

Farther, Trump’s seeming belief that having an attorney listen to a conversation aside, attorney client privilege covers communication seeking legal advice, providing legal advice, or research to provide legal advice. Otherwise rich dudes would just have a lawyer travel with them at all times and call everything privileged.

But maybe I’ve found the silver lining to Trump’s time in office — a good number of people are becoming far more informed about the country’s laws and procedures.

Running Sendmail In A CHROOT Jail

My employer’s OS-support model restricts root access to members of the Unix support team. Applications are normally installed into a package directory and run under a service ID. While this model works well for most applications, sendmail is tightly integrated into the OS and is not readily built into an application directory. We attempted to run sendmail as a non-root user with modified permissions on application directories such as /var/spool/mqueue – this worked, until OS patches were applied and permissions reset. We needed a way to run sendmail as a non-root user and allow the OS support team to patch servers without impacting the sendmail application.

Chroot is a mechanism that uses a supplied directory path as the environment’s root directory. The jailed process, and its children, should not be able to access any part of the file hierarchy outside of the new root. As a security mechanism, the approach has several flaws – abridged version of the story is that it’s not terribly difficult to break out of jail here; and there are far more effective security approaches (e.g. SELinux). However, chroot jails have their own copies of system owned directories (such as /var/spool/mqueue), binaries, and libraries. Using a chroot jail will allow us to maintain a sendmail application in the package directory that is not impacted by OS updates.

This approach works on relaying mail servers (i.e. those that queue mail to /var/spool/mqueue and send it on its merry way). If sendmail is hosting mailboxes, there are additional challenges to designing a chroot configuration that actually drops messages into mailbox files that users can access.

Preliminaries: To copy/paste, view the single article. Create a service account under which sendmail will run. The installation directory should be owned by the service account user.

Set up the chroot jail location in the installation directory. In this example, that directory is /smt00p20.

mkdir /smt00p20/sendmail
mkdir /smt00p20/sendmail/dev
mkdir /smt00p20/opendkim

We need a null and random in the sendmail jail. On a command line, run:

# Create sendmail jail /dev/null
mknod /smt00p20/sendmail/dev/null c 1 3
# Create sendmail jail /dev/random
mknod /smt00p20/sendmail/dev/random c 1 8

We need an rsyslog socket added under each jail. In /etc/rsyslog.conf, add the following:

# additional log sockets for chroot'ed jail
# Idea from http://www.ispcolohost.com/2014/03/14/how-to-get-syslog-records-of-chrooted-ssh-sftp-server-activity/
$AddUnixListenSocket /smt00p20/sendmail/dev/log
$AddUnixListenSocket /smt00p20/opendkim/dev/log

 

Additionally, these instructions assume both sendmail and sendmail-cf have been installed on the server. If they have not, you can download the RPMs, unpack them, and copy the files to the appropriate relative jail locations.

Chrooting Sendmail

Logged in with the sendmail ID, ensure you have a .bash_profile that loads .bashrc

-bash-4.2$ cat ~/.bash_profile
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
. ~/.bashrc
fi

Edit ~/.bashrc and add the following, where smt00p20 is the appropriate installation directory, to allow copy/paste

export SENDMAILJAIL=/smt00p20/sendmail
export OPENDKIMJAIL=/smt00p20/opendkim

Log out of the service account and back in (or just source in the .bashrc file). Verify SENDMAILJAIL and OPENDKIMJAIL are set.

Copy a whole heap of ‘stuff’ into the jail – this includes some utilities used to troubleshoot issues within the jail which aren’t strictly needed. I’ve also unpacked the strace RPM to the respective directories within the jail.

mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/bin
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/etc
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/alternatives
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/mail
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/smrsh
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/lib
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/lib/tls
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/tmp
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/usr
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/bin
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib/sasl2
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/var
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/var/log
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/var/log/mail
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/var/run
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/var/spool
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/var/spool/mqueue
mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/var/spool/clientmqueue
 
cp /etc/aliases $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/aliases.db $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/passwd $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/group $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/resolv.conf $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/host.conf $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/nsswitch.conf $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/services $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/hosts $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/localtime $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/
 

# If cloning an existing server, scp /etc/mail/* from source to /smt00p20/sendmail/etc/mail

# Verify the sendmail.mc has a RUNAS_USER set to the same service account you are using - the account on our servers is named 'sendmail'. Our old servers are not all set up with a runas user, and failing to have one will cause write failures to the jail /var/spool/mqueue

cp -r /etc/mail/ $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/etc/mail/
cp /usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail

cd /smt00p20/sendmail/etc/alternatives
ln -s ../../usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail ./mta

cd /smt00p20/sendmail/usr/sbin
ln -s ../../etc/alternatives/mta ./sendmail
ln -s ./sendmail ./newaliases
ln -s ./sendmail ./newaliases.sendmail

cd /smt00p20/sendmail/usr/bin
ln -s ../sbin/sendmail ./mailq
ln -s ../sbin/sendmail ./mailq.sendmail
ln -s ../sbin/sendmail.sendmail ./hoststat
ln -s ../sbin/sendmail.sendmail ./purgestat
ln -s ../sbin/makemap ./makemap
ln -s ./rmail.sendmail ./rmail
cp /usr/lib64/libssl.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libssl.so.10
cp /usr/lib64/libcrypto.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libcrypto.so.10
cp /usr/lib64/libnsl.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnsl.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libwrap.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libwrap.so.0
cp /usr/lib64/libhesiod.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libhesiod.so.0
cp /usr/lib64/libcrypt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libcrypt.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libdb-5.3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libdb-5.3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libresolv.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libresolv.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libsasl2.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libsasl2.so.3
cp /usr/lib64/libldap-2.4.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libldap-2.4.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/liblber-2.4.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/liblber-2.4.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libc.so.6
cp /usr/lib64/libgssapi_krb5.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libgssapi_krb5.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libkrb5.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libkrb5.so.3
cp /usr/lib64/libcom_err.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libcom_err.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libk5crypto.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libk5crypto.so.3
cp /usr/lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libdl.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libz.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libz.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libidn.so.11 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libidn.so.11
cp /usr/lib64/libfreebl3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libfreebl3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libpthread.so.0
cp /usr/lib64/libssl3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libssl3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libsmime3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libsmime3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libnss3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnss3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libnssutil3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnssutil3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libplds4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libplds4.so
cp /usr/lib64/libplc4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libplc4.so
cp /usr/lib64/libnspr4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnspr4.so
cp /usr/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libkrb5support.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libkrb5support.so.0
cp /usr/lib64/libkeyutils.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libkeyutils.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/librt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/librt.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libselinux.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libselinux.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libpcre.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libnss_dns.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnss_dns.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libnss_files.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnss_files.so.2

cd $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64
cp /lib64/libnss_dns-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/libnss_dns-2.17.so
ln -s ./libnss_dns-2.17.so ./libnss_dns.so.2

cp /lib64/libresolv-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/libresolv-2.17.so
ln -s ./lib64/libresolv-2.17.so ./libresolv.so.2

cp /lib64/libnss_files-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/libnss_files-2.17.so
ln -s ./lib64/libnss_files-2.17.so ./libnss_files.so.2

cd $SENDMAILJAIL/lib 
cp /lib64/libnss_dns-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib/libnss_dns-2.17.so
ln -s ./lib/libnss_dns-2.17.so ./libnss_dns.so.2

cp /lib64/libresolv-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib/libresolv-2.17.so
ln -s ./lib/libresolv-2.17.so ./libresolv.so.2

cp /lib64/libnss_files-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib/libnss_files-2.17.so
ln -s ./lib/libnss_files-2.17.so ./libnss_files.so.2

mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/sasl2
cp /usr/lib64/sasl2/* $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/sasl2/

mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/sasl2/
cp /lib64/sasl2/* $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/sasl2/
cp /etc/sasl2/Sendmail.conf $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/sasl2/

mkdir $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/sasl2
cp /etc/sasl2/Sendmail.conf $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/sasl2/


cp /usr/sbin/makemap $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/makemap
ln -s ../sbin/makemap ./makemap
cp /usr/bin/rmail.sendmail $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/bin/rmail.sendmail
ln -s ./rmail.sendmail ./rmail

cp /usr/sbin/mailstats $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/mailstats
cp /usr/sbin/makemap $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/makemap
cp /usr/sbin/praliases $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/praliases
cp /usr/sbin/smrsh $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/smrsh

cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcom_err.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcrypt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcrypto.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdb-5.3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libfreebl3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgssapi_krb5.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libhesiod.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libidn.so.11 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libk5crypto.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libk5crypto.so.3: $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkeyutils.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkrb5.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkrb5support.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/liblber-2.4.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libldap-2.4.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libnsl.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libnspr4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libnss3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libnssutil3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libplc4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libplds4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/librt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libsasl2.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libselinux.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libsmime3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libssl.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libssl3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libwrap.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libz.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /usr/lib64/libk5crypto.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/

cp /lib64/libdns.so.100 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/liblwres.so.90 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libbind9.so.90 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libisccfg.so.90 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libisccc.so.90 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libisc.so.95 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgssapi_krb5.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkrb5.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libk5crypto.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcom_err.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcrypto.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcap.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libGeoIP.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libxml2.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libz.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libm.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libidn.so.11 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkrb5support.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkeyutils.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libattr.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/liblzma.so.5 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libselinux.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /bin/dig $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/

cp /lib64/libtinfo.so.5 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /bin/bash $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/

cp /bin/ls $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/
cp /lib64/libcap.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libacl.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libattr.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/

cp /bin/vi $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/
cp /usr/sbin/pidof $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/pidof
cp /lib64/libprocps.so.4 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libsystemd.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcap.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libm.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/librt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libselinux.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/liblzma.so.5 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgcrypt.so.11 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgpg-error.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdw.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgcc_s.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libattr.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libelf.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libz.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libbz2.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /bin/rm $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/

Under your ID, ensure the proper permissions are set on the chroot jail

sudo chown -R sendmail:mail /smt00p20/sendmail/
sudo chown sendmail /smt00p20/sendmail/var/spool/mqueue
sudo chmod 0700 /smt00p20/sendmail/var/spool/mqueue
sudo chmod -R go-w /smt00p20/sendmail
sudo chmod 0400 /smt00p20/sendmail/etc/mail/*.cf

Now verify it works – still under your ID as you have sudo permission to run chroot.

sudo /sbin/chroot /smt00p20/sendmail /bin/ls
# You should see a directory listing like this, not an error
bin  dev  etc  lib  lib64  tmp  usr  var

Assuming there are no problems, run sendmail:

sudo /sbin/chroot /smt00p20/sendmail /usr/sbin/sendmail -bd -q5m

Test sending mail through the server to verify proper functionality.

Unit Config: Edit the systemd unit file and add the “RootDirectory” directive

sudo vi /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/sendmail.service

[Unit]
Description=Sendmail Mail Transport Agent
After=syslog.target network.target
Conflicts=postfix.service exim.service
Wants=sm-client.service

[Service]
RootDirectory=/smt00p20/sendmail
Type=forking
StartLimitInterval=0
# Known issue – pid causes service hang/timeout that bothers Unix guys
# https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1253840
#PIDFile=/run/sendmail.pid
Environment=SENDMAIL_OPTS=-q15m
EnvironmentFile=-/smt00p20/sendmail/etc/sysconfig/sendmail
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/sendmail -bd $SENDMAIL_OPTS $SENDMAIL_OPTARG

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
Also=sm-client.service

Then run “systemctl daemon-reload” to ingest the changes.

You can now use systemctl to start and stop the sendmail service.

Chrooting opendkim

Create the chroot jail and lib64 directory, then populate with required files:

mkdir $OPENDKIMJAIL
mkdir $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64
cp /lib64/libtinfo.so.5 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/

cp /bin/bash $OPENDKIMJAIL/bin/
cp /lib64/libstdc++.so.6* $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64
cp /lib64/libm.so.6 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64
cp /lib64/libgcc_s.so.1 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64
cp /lib64/libnss_files* $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/

Unpack the following RPMs:

rpm2cpio opendkim-2.11.0-0.1.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
rpm2cpio libopendkim-2.11.0-0.1.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
rpm2cpio sendmail-milter-8.14.7-5.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
rpm2cpio opendbx-1.4.6-6.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
rpm2cpio libmemcached-1.0.16-5.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idvm
rpm2cpio libbsd-0.6.0-3.el7.elrepo.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idvm

Then move the unpacked files into the corresponding location in the $OPENDKIMJAIL directory.

Copy host configuration ‘stuff’ from /etc

cp /etc/aliases $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/aliases.db $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/passwd $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/group $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/resolv.conf $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/host.conf $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/nsswitch.conf $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/services $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/hosts $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/
cp /etc/localtime $OPENDKIMJAIL/etc/

Configure OpenDKIM ($DKIMJAIL/etc/opendkim.conf) and populate keys (copy from server being replaced or generate new keys). Then, under your ID, run:

sudo /sbin/chroot /smt00p20/opendkim /usr/sbin/opendkim -u sendmail -v

The systemd unit file, /usr/lib/systemd/system/opendkim.service, needs to contain:

# If you are using OpenDKIM with SQL datasets it might be necessary to start OpenDKIM after the database servers.
# For example, if using both MariaDB and PostgreSQL, change "After=" in the "[Unit]" section to:
# After=network.target nss-lookup.target syslog.target mariadb.service postgresql.service

[Unit]
Description=DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) Milter
Documentation=man:opendkim(8) man:opendkim.conf(5) man:opendkim-genkey(8) man:opendkim-genzone(8) man:opendkim-testadsp(8) man:opendkim-testkey http://www.opendkim.org/docs.html
After=network.target nss-lookup.target syslog.target

[Service]
RootDirectory=/smt00p20/opendkim
Type=forking
PIDFile=/smt00p20/opendkim/var/run/opendkim/opendkim.pid
EnvironmentFile=-/etc/sysconfig/opendkim
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/opendkim -u sendmail -v $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -USR1 $MAINPID
User=sendmail
Group=mail

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

 

Upgrading Sendmail – After Unix Applies Patches

This process grabs a new copy of sendmail, associated diagnostic utilities, and their dependencies from the OS installation. If you want to apply patches prior to Unix support doing so, you can stage a sendmail build (everything up to ‘make install’) and copy the files out or, if an updated RPM is in the repo but just not installed, download the RPMs, unpack them, and copy the files in. I would do that in addition to (and after) this process to ensure library updates are reflected in our jailed sendmail installation (i.e. if there’s an update to the crypto libraries, we get those updates).

cp /usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail
cp /usr/lib64/libssl.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libssl.so.10
cp /usr/lib64/libcrypto.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libcrypto.so.10
cp /usr/lib64/libnsl.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnsl.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libwrap.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libwrap.so.0
cp /usr/lib64/libhesiod.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libhesiod.so.0
cp /usr/lib64/libcrypt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libcrypt.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libdb-5.3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libdb-5.3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libresolv.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libresolv.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libsasl2.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libsasl2.so.3
cp /usr/lib64/libldap-2.4.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libldap-2.4.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/liblber-2.4.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/liblber-2.4.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libc.so.6
cp /usr/lib64/libgssapi_krb5.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libgssapi_krb5.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libkrb5.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libkrb5.so.3
cp /usr/lib64/libcom_err.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libcom_err.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libk5crypto.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libk5crypto.so.3
cp /usr/lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libdl.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libz.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libz.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libidn.so.11 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libidn.so.11
cp /usr/lib64/libfreebl3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libfreebl3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libpthread.so.0
cp /usr/lib64/libssl3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libssl3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libsmime3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libsmime3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libnss3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnss3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libnssutil3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnssutil3.so
cp /usr/lib64/libplds4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libplds4.so
cp /usr/lib64/libplc4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libplc4.so
cp /usr/lib64/libnspr4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnspr4.so
cp /usr/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libkrb5support.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libkrb5support.so.0
cp /usr/lib64/libkeyutils.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libkeyutils.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/librt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/librt.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libselinux.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libselinux.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libpcre.so.1
cp /usr/lib64/libnss_dns.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnss_dns.so.2
cp /usr/lib64/libnss_files.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/libnss_files.so.2
cp /lib64/libnss_dns-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/libnss_dns-2.17.so
cp /lib64/libresolv-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/libresolv-2.17.so
cp /lib64/libnss_files-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/libnss_files-2.17.so
cp /lib64/libnss_dns-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib/libnss_dns-2.17.so
cp /lib64/libresolv-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib/libresolv-2.17.so
cp /lib64/libnss_files-2.17.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib/libnss_files-2.17.so
cp /usr/lib64/sasl2/* $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/sasl2/
cp /lib64/sasl2/* $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/sasl2/
cp /etc/sasl2/Sendmail.conf $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/sasl2/
cp /etc/sasl2/Sendmail.conf $SENDMAILJAIL/etc/sasl2/
cp /usr/sbin/makemap $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/makemap
cp /usr/bin/rmail.sendmail $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/bin/rmail.sendmail
cp /usr/sbin/mailstats $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/mailstats
cp /usr/sbin/makemap $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/makemap
cp /usr/sbin/praliases $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/praliases
cp /usr/sbin/smrsh $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/smrsh

cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcom_err.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcrypt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcrypto.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdb-5.3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libfreebl3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgssapi_krb5.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libhesiod.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libidn.so.11 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libk5crypto.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libk5crypto.so.3: $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkeyutils.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkrb5.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkrb5support.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/liblber-2.4.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libldap-2.4.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libnsl.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libnspr4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libnss3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libnssutil3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libplc4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libplds4.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/librt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libsasl2.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libselinux.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libsmime3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libssl.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libssl3.so $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libwrap.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libz.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /usr/lib64/libk5crypto.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/lib64/

cp /lib64/libdns.so.100 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/liblwres.so.90 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libbind9.so.90 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libisccfg.so.90 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libisccc.so.90 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libisc.so.95 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgssapi_krb5.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkrb5.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libk5crypto.so.3 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcom_err.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcrypto.so.10 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcap.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libGeoIP.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libxml2.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libz.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libm.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libidn.so.11 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkrb5support.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libkeyutils.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libattr.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/liblzma.so.5 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libselinux.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /bin/dig $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/

cp /lib64/libtinfo.so.5 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /bin/bash $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/

cp /bin/ls $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/
cp /lib64/libcap.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libacl.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libattr.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/

cp /bin/vi $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/
cp /usr/sbin/pidof $SENDMAILJAIL/usr/sbin/pidof
cp /lib64/libprocps.so.4 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libsystemd.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libcap.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libm.so.6 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/librt.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libselinux.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/liblzma.so.5 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgcrypt.so.11 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgpg-error.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdw.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libgcc_s.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpthread.so.0 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libattr.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libpcre.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libelf.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libz.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libbz2.so.1 $SENDMAILJAIL/lib64/

cp /bin/rm $SENDMAILJAIL/bin/

 

Under your ID, ensure the proper permissions are set on the chroot jail

sudo chown -R sendmail:mail /smt00p20/sendmail/
sudo chown sendmail /smt00p20/sendmail/var/spool/mqueue
sudo chmod 0700 /smt00p20/sendmail/var/spool/mqueue
sudo chmod -R go-w /smt00p20/sendmail
sudo chmod 0400 /smt00p20/sendmail/etc/mail/*.cf

Then start sendmail and verify functionality.

Updating OpenDKIM

cp /lib64/libtinfo.so.5 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libdl.so.2 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/libc.so.6 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/
cp /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/
cp /bin/bash $OPENDKIMJAIL/bin/
cp /lib64/libstdc++.so.6* $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64
cp /lib64/libm.so.6 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64
cp /lib64/libgcc_s.so.1 $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64
cp /lib64/libnss_files* $OPENDKIMJAIL/lib64/

 

If there is an update to the opendkim packages, unpack the updated RPM files and move the new files into the corresponding jail locations.

rpm2cpio opendkim-2.11.0-0.1.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
rpm2cpio libopendkim-2.11.0-0.1.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
rpm2cpio sendmail-milter-8.14.7-5.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
rpm2cpio opendbx-1.4.6-6.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
rpm2cpio libmemcached-1.0.16-5.el7.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idvm
rpm2cpio libbsd-0.6.0-3.el7.elrepo.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idvm

 

Thread Painting – Butterfly Tshirt

I’ve seen various iterations of needle painting (thread painting, needle shading) and am finally trying it. While the technique isn’t difficult, it is seriously time consuming. Fortunately, Anya loves the butterfly thus far. I’ll probably make another shirt or two using this technique … but start with a size 6 or 7 shirt so she gets years of wearing it (and most of the embroidered shirts will either become a t-shirt quilt or appliqué patches on a larger shirt)

Trump, Amazon, and USPS

May have figured out how Trump managed to lose so much money — he doesn’t know the difference between losing money, making money, and breaking even. The post office does not lose money on delivering packages. I don’t know this because I’ve got insider information on their contract with Amazon, but I do have access to the text of American legislation. The Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act disallows the Post Office from selling package delivery under its cost. Now you can debate the cost calculation – the real issue being disputed by FedEx and UPS is that the Post Office doesn’t have to include all of their delivery costs in package delivery “cost”. Why? Because they’d have carriers driving trucks all over the country even if there were on package delivery service. Of course this gives the Post Office a huge advantage in their package pricing model. And, yeah, that sucks for FedEx and UPS. But it’s sucked for FedEx and UPS for a LONG time.

The Post Office may just be breaking even on it’s Amazon contract – but as the package delivery “cost” does include some operational expenses … well, Amazon is saving American tax payers money because package delivery does include 5.5% of the fixed operating costs (I assume to cover additional cost created by package delivery service). Sure FedEx and UPS have to include 100% of their fixed operating costs in their pricing model, and if Trump wanted to talk about how providing package delivery services is unfair to private industry … that’s a discussion. But I doubt any commercial venture is going to delivery mail every day across the entire country so it’s up to the government. And providing package delivery and shipping services in urban areas (where it would be profitable for a private corporation to operate) subsidize delivery out to the cabin I stayed at in South Dakota. If the Post Office could be charging more for its services … that’s a discussion. Except do you want to pay more to ship packages and mail!?! And if we want to delve into the financial nuances of the Post Office, let’s look at their pension pre-funding requirements.

How does a guy who claims to be all about business deals think it’s bad for a corporation to use the service that provides them a cost advantage?!? Unless Trump thinks he can start tariffing the bloody post office (or, more accurately, have the legislature change the suppositions they are permitted in their pricing model) … Amazon would be outright silly to voluntarily pay more to another carrier.

And how does a guy who claims to be all about negotiating wins for American citizens think it’s a bad deal that the Post Office is making money off of Amazon instead of FedEx or UPS doing so? Say they *do* change the postal pricing model to make it “fair” to UPS/Fedex (or just outlaw package service from USPS). Our tax money is still paying for postal carriers to drive all over the country to delivery mail, Amazon Prime memberships cost more, but hey UPS is making bank. And … that’s what really matters?!?

What they’re really upset about is that the post office used to be a crap shot of getting something to “Point B” even without getting into SLA’s. You paid extra to FedEx or UPS to make sure it actually *got there*. Now the three services are equally reliable … which means government managed to provide a service as good as private industry.

Creating An OpenHAB 2.3.0 Snapshot Docker Container

We found quick instructions for creating a Docker container for the OpenHAB 2.3.0 snapshot. These instructions evidently presuppose some basic knowledge of building Docker containers, so I thought I’d write the “I don’t know what I am doing” version of the instructions. Beyond the obvious download & install Docker, then make sure it’s functional (service starts).

The linked Dockerfile is not the only thing you need. Go up a level — you need both the Dockerfile and entrypoint.sh files. Create a directory somewhere and grab these two files. Then build the container using

docker build -t oh2imagename .

I used a short, alpha-numeric only name for my image. When I used slashes as in the example, the container would not start. Then make the folders you want to map into OpenHAB2:

mkdir /some/path/to/openhab/addons
mkdir /some/path/to/openhab/conf
mkdir /some/path/to/openhab/userdata

The instructions conflate local users/groups with in-container users/groups. You do not need to create a local user. You do need to indicate the uidNumber and gidNumber for the openhab user and group. Even if you do create the local user and group, then change the /some/path/to/openhab permissions to provide full access to the user … you may well not be able to access the files. That is SELinux, not a file permission issue. The quick/dirty solution is to start the container with the privileged flag:

--privileged=true

Alternately, consult the Universal Archive of All IT Knowledge and figure out how to allow the docker service to write files where you want them. And how to access USB devices if you are trying to use something like a ZWave dongle. We went with the privileged route 🙂 The –name option is just the container name. The –net uses the host network for container communications instead of the bridge network. Saves mapping ports, although you could easily use the bridge network and map out the handful of OpenHab specific ports. The -d runs the container in detached mode. The -e sets some environment flags (used by the user/group creation script that runs upon container startup). The –tty (or -t) attaches a console. Not really used here.

docker run --privileged --name oh2containername --net=host --tty -d -e USER_ID=5555 \
 -e GROUP_ID=5555 oh2imagename

Ideally, your OpenHAB2 instance will be running. Use “docker ps” to list out the running containers. If you don’t see a container with the name supplied above … then something went wrong. You can use “docker history oh2containername” to view a quick history, but “docker logs oh2containername” will probably provide more useful information. We encountered file permission issues (as noted above, due to SELinux) which prevented the initial container setup from running. Once that was sorted, the container showed up in the running container list.

You’re ready to use it — you can access the web console using your computer’s IP address (assuming you set this container up in the host network and not the bridge — if you used the bridge, you can use “docker inspect oh2containername” and look for IPAddress under NetworkSettings) on the default port. You can ssh into the Karaf console with the default user/password on the default port. Or you can shell into the container.

docker exec -it oh2containername /bin/bash

This is a bash shell running on the OH2 container — you’ll find a lot of ‘stuff’ hasn’t been installed, and your normal command aliases won’t be present. But it’s a shell on the server and can be used to start/stop OH2.

Spinach Hemp Seed Pesto Recipe

Ingredients:

  • 1 cup of firmly packed spinach leaves
  • 1/3 cup of hemp seed
  • 1-2 cloves of garlic
  • 1 teaspoon of fresh lemon juice
  • Pinch of sea salt
  • 1/8 teaspoon of freshly ground pepper
  • 1/4 cup of grated Parmesan cheese (not powdery grated, long slivers)
  • 1/4 cup of olive oil

Method:

  1. In a food processor, combine spinach, hemp seeds, garlic, lemon juice, salt, and pepper. Run the processor until the spinach has been chopped into fine pieces.
  2. Add the Parmesan cheese, and run the processor for few seconds to incorporate.
  3. Add the olive oil; run the processor until you’ve got a thick paste.

This was really good. I will probably make a version with 1/2 cup of basil when basil is growing again.

Gathering Android Log Files

A friend has an Android application that isn’t functioning properly. On Windows or Unix, I know how to stack-trace and debug apps … so she figured I’d be all set up to do the same thing on Android too. Except I’ve never encountered a problem that required debugging Android apps. Consult the universal archive of all IT knowledge (a.k.a. Google).

I don’t have the Android developer kit installed, nor do I need it, so I elected to use “Minimal ADB and Fastboot” to grab the log data. My device did not show up without a Windows driver for the debug bridge. Once the driver was installed and the adb server restarted, my device appeared.

 

C:\Users\lisa>"c:\program files (x86)\Minimal ADB and Fastboot\adb.exe" kill-server

C:\Users\lisa>"c:\program files (x86)\Minimal ADB and Fastboot\adb.exe" start-server
* daemon not running; starting now at tcp:5037
* daemon started successfully

C:\Users\lisa>"c:\program files (x86)\Minimal ADB and Fastboot\adb.exe" devices
List of devices attached
g142ef0c        device

Something interesting about the adb log data – it can include an hour or more of history. Which is awesome if your app crashed a few minutes ago and you want to capture historic data, but for a reproducible error … well, there’s no need to slog through thousands of lines to find where the problem actually started. Clear the log buffers first then start capturing the adb log data:

"c:\program files (x86)\Minimal ADB and Fastboot\adb.exe" logcat -b main -b system ^
-b radio -b events -c&&"c:\program files (x86)\Minimal ADB and Fastboot\adb.exe" logcat ^
-v threadtime -f "C:\temp\SessionLog.txt"