Tag: home automation

Zoneminder Setup

I just installed ZoneMinder tonight. I don’t know if I missed a section in the documentation or something’s just missing — there’s doc for getting the build onto your box (or building your own from source). I didn’t want to install the package and all of its dependencies from their repo, so I manually installed the prereqs from the standard Fedora repositories. Installed the zoneminder rpm and switched from the ‘installation guide’ to the ‘user guide’. Which starts out on a web site. Umm … what web site? There’s definitely something missing here. Their package drops a config file in /etc/httpd/conf.d … *but* it presupposes that it is a dedicated server (which, in fairness, is the recommended configuration).

I edited the zoneminder.conf file and threw the whole thing in a VirtualHost tag, added an SSL cert for the hostname I’m using, and restarted Apache. OK, that’s better … I get *something*. Unfortunately ‘something’ is a massive MySQL error.

Some searching (rpm -ql zoneminder, then search through the files the package installed for something that looks good) yielded a config file at /etc/zm/zm.conf. Went in there, defined a database, user, and password. Created said database & user in mysql & assigned rights. Umm, stranger database error that leads me to believe the database hasn’t been initialized. Oops. LMGTFY. Found a SQL file at /usr/share/zoneminder/db/zm_create.sql and imported *that* … wasn’t sure if it was as simple as changing the zm database name in the SQL file to what I wanted or not, so I just used their default database name. Went back into MySQL and assigned the user I’d created earlier rights to the zm database and dropped *my* database. (Note, if you don’t use PHP date ‘stuff’, you may need to define the time zone in your php.ini file … I’d already set a default for other purposes).

Refresh and voila, I’ve got a system. You’ve got to click ‘start’ at the top for it to, well, start pulling in video feeds. I set up a VERY basic link to our WansView camera — ffmpg type, source is the full videostream.cgi URL, and remote method is “RTP/Unicast”. I can now see the video from our camera via the web site. WooHoo!

Now we need to get the motion detection set up & play with all of the options ūüôā

Home Automation Lagering

We are about to make mead (we got near 30 pounds of local honey!). In researching mead-making, different yeasts have different alcohol tolerances … so you make a dry mead by using a yeast with an alcohol tolerance at or above the level your starting gravity would yield if it were fully fermented. A sweeter mead means you have a yeast whose tolerance is lower than that value … the greater the difference, the sweeter the mead. We are going to make a dry mead with Lalvin 71b-1122, a just slightly sweet mead by adding a little more honey but still using Lalvin 71b-1122, and a sweeter mead using Lalvin D-47.

71b-1122 has a very broad temperature range (59-86 F – and how cool is it that Google returns a yeast profile summary if you search for “71b-1122 temperature range”). D-47 is more particular — a published range of 59-68 F, but reading through homebrew sites has us wanting to stay around 63 degrees. Our sub-grade level is cool, but not that cool. Especially as fermentation warms up the fluid.

Scott is developing a home automation controlled fermentation “chamber”. The beer refrigerator is now plugged into a smart outlet. One of the Arduino kits we got has a temperature sensor. We can have a temperature probe monitoring the must and cycle the refrigerator’s power to keep it within a degree or two of our target.

Reverse Proxying WebSockets to An MQTT Server

If you are trying to reverse proxy OpenHab – that’s over here. This post is about maintaining your own private MQTT server and making it accessible through a reverse proxy.

We want to be able to update our presence automatically (without publishing our location information to the Internet). Scott found a program called OwnTracks that uses an MQTT server – and there’s an MQTT binding from OpenHab that should be able to read in the updates.

We didn’t want to publish our home automation server to the Internet, but we do want to send updates from the cellular data network when we leave home. To accomplish this, I set up a reverse proxy on our Apache server.

The first step is to get an MQTT server up and working — we Installed a mosquitto package from Fedora’s dnf repository

Once it is installed, create a directory for the persistence file & chown the folder to mosquitto uid

Generate a bunch of certs using the ot-tools (git clone https://github.com/owntracks/tools.git). I edited the generate-CA.sh file in the ot-tools/tools/TLS folder prior to running the script. It will more or less work as-is, but modifying the organisation names makes a cert with your name on it. Not that anyone will notice. Or care ūüôā Modifying the IPLIST and HOSTLIST, on the other hand, will get you a cert that actually matches your hostname — which isn’t a problem for something that doesn’t verify host name information, but saves trouble if you get your hostnames to match up.

Then use generate-CA.sh to generate a CA cert & a server cert. Copy these files into /etc/mosquitto/

Edit the config (/etc/mosquitto/mosquitto.conf) – LMGTFY to find settings you want. Specify a location for the persistence file, password file, and add in the websockets listeners (& ssl certs for the secure one)
persistence_file /var/lib/mosquitto/mosquitto.db

password_file /etc/mosquitto/passwd

listener 9001
protocol websockets

listener 9002
protocol websockets
cafile /etc/mosquitto/ca.crt
certfile /etc/mosquitto/mosquittohost.rushworth.us.crt
keyfile /etc/mosquitto/mosquittohost.rushworth.us.key

Add some users
/usr/bin/mosquitto_passwd /etc/mosquitto/passwd WhateverUID

Start mosquitto
mosquitto -c /etc/mosquitto/mosquitto.conf

Monitor mosquitto for the owntracks ‘stuff’
mosquitto_sub -h mosquittohost.rushworth.us -p 1883 -v -t ‘owntracks/#’ -u WhateverUID -P PWDHereToo

Setting up the reverse proxy
The big sticking point I had was that the Apache WebSockets reverse proxy has a problem (https://bz.apache.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=55320) which is marked as closed. Fedora has 2.4.23, so I expected it was sorted. However using tshark to capture the traffic showed that the relayed traffic is still being send as clear.

Downloaded the exact same rev from Apache’s web site and checked the mod_proxy_wstunnel.c file for the changes in the bug report and found they were indeed committed. In spite of the fact I *had* 2.4.23, I decided to build it and see if the mod_proxy_wstunnel.so was different.

Make sure you have all the devel libraries (openssl-devel for me … run the config line and it’ll tell you whatever else you need)

Get apr and apr-util from Apache & store to ./srclib then gunzip & untar them. Rename the version-specific folders to just apr and apr-util

Once you have everything, configure and make
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/apache –with-included-apr –enable-alias=shared –enable-authz_host=shared –enable-authz_user=shared –enable-deflate=shared –enable-negotiation=shared –enable-proxy=shared –enable-ssl=shared –enable-reqtimeout=shared –enable-status=shared –enable-auth_basic=shared –enable-dir=shared –enable-authn_file=shared –enable-autoindex=shared –enable-env=shared –enable-php5=shared –enable-authz_default=shared –enable-cgi=shared –enable-setenvif=shared –enable-authz_groupfile=shared –enable-mime=shared –enable-proxy_http=shared –enable-proxy_wstunnel=shared

Rename your mod_proxy_wstunnel.so to something like mod_proxy_wstunnel.so.bak and the grab mod_proxy_wstunnel.so that just got built.

Grab the CA public key & the server public and private keys that were generated earlier & place them whereever you store your SSL certs on your Apache server

Create a new site config for this reverse proxy – SSL doesn’t do host headers so you need a unique port. Clear text you can use a host header. Don’t forget to add listen’s to your httpd.conf and ssl.conf files!

ProxyRequests Off
<VirtualHost #.#.#.#:##>
ServerName mosquitto.rushworth.us
ServerAlias mosquitto
DocumentRoot “/var/www/vhtml/mosquitto”

SetEnv force-proxy-request-1.0 1
SetEnv proxy-nokeepalive 1
SetEnv proxy-initial-not-pooled
SetEnv proxy-initial-not-pooled 1

ProxyPreserveHost On
ProxyTimeOut    1800

ProxyPass               /       ws://mosquittohost.rushworth.us:9001/
ProxyPassReverse        /       ws://mosquittohost.rushworth.us:9001/

<VirtualHost #.#.#.#:##>
ServerName mosquitto.rushworth.us
ServerAlias mosquitto
DocumentRoot “/var/www/vhtml/mosquitto”

SetEnv force-proxy-request-1.0 1
SetEnv proxy-nokeepalive 1
SetEnv proxy-initial-not-pooled
SetEnv proxy-initial-not-pooled 1

ProxyPreserveHost On
ProxyTimeOut    1800

SSLEngine On
SSLProxyEngine On
SSLProxyCheckPeerCN off
SSLProxyCheckPeerName off
SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/mosquittohost.rushworth.us.crt        # These are the public and private key components
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/mosquittohost.rushworth.us.key        #     generated from generate-CA.sh earlier.
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/httpd/conf/ssl/ca.crt                # This is the public key of the CA generated by generate-CA.sh

ProxyPass               /       wss://mosquittohost.rushworth.us:9002/
ProxyPassReverse        /       wss://mosquittohost.rushworth.us:9002/

Reload apache. Create a DNS hostname internally and externally to direct the hostname to your reverse proxy server.

Configure the client — generate a key for yourself & merge it into a p12 file (make sure your ca cert files are still in the directory – if you *moved* them into /etc/mosquitto … copy them back:
sh generate-CA.sh client lisa
openssl pkcs12 -export -in lisa.crt -inkey lisa.key -name “Lisa’s key” -out lisa.p12
You’ll need to supply a password for the p12 file.

Put the ca.crt (*public* key) file and your p12 file somewhere on your phone (or Google Drive).

Client config – Install Owntracks from Play Store
Preferences – Connection
Mode:    Private MQTT
Host:    hostname & port used in your **SSL** config. Select use WebSockets
Identification:    uid & password created above. Device ID is used as part of the MQTT path (i.e. my lisa device is /owntracks/userid/lisa). Tracker ID is within the data itself
Security:¬†¬† ¬†Use TLS, CA certificate is the ca.crt created above. Client cert is the p12 file – you’ll need to enter the same password used to create the file

If it isn’t working, turn off TLS & change the port to your clear text port. This will allow you to isolate an SSL-specific problem or a more general service issue. Once you know everything is working, you can drop the clear text reverse proxy component.

Voila – reverse proxied WebSockets over to Mosquitto for OwnTracks.

Using BC And Command Substitution In OpenHAB’s Exec Binding

My husband has been¬†setting up OpenHAB to control our home automation. Our dimmers¬†are very direct – there’s a z-Wave binding that you set to 100 if you want it at 100%, set it to 18 if you want it at 18%, and so on. We have a handful of Zigbee bulbs, though, which are not so direct. We are controlling these bulbs through a Wink hub by running a curl command with the exec binding.

The OpenHAB exec binding runs a shell with a command string passed in from the -c parameter. Thus far, I have not found anything that runs within a shell not work in the exec binding. This includes command substitution {I personally use the backtick format instead of the $(command) format, but I expect the later to be equally functional}.

What is command substitution (without having to read the Open Group Base Specifications linked above)? If you run

kill `pidof java`

the shell takes the component within the backticks, evaluates it, and then takes the standard output and places that into the command. When “pidof java” returns “938 984 1038”, the command above becomes “kill 938 984 1038”.

We want to set the value to the OpenHab value (0-100) scaled to the Wink value (0-255 for GE Link bulbs) using command substitution with bc (an arbitrary precision calculator language). To evaluate a mathematical expression, echo the expression text and pipe it to bc. To set a bulb to 75% of its maximum brightness, our post data is “nodeId=a&attrId=aprontest -u -m9 -t2 -v`echo 2.55*75/1|bc`”.

Notice the divide by 1 at the end — that’s to turn a decimal value into an integer. If you use just 2.55*75, you post a value of 191.25 which throws an error. In bc’s language, / returns the quotient — this isn’t *rounding* but rather truncating the decimal portion( i.e. bc 9.99999/1 = 9).

We configure the OpenHAB item to take the selected value (the %2$s below), scale the value with bc, and insert the result into the curl command. We use a similar technique to read the data from Wink and present the scaled value through OpenHAB.

The item entry in our sitemap.items file:

Dimmer¬† DS_Pantry_Bulb_Level¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† “Bulb (Pantry Downstairs) [%d]”¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† <slider>¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† (gZigbeeBulb,gDS_Pantry,gLight)¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† { exec=”<[/bin/sh@@-c@@echo `/usr/bin/curl \”http://wink.hub.address/set_dev_value.php\” -s -d \”nodeId=a&attrId=aprontest -l -m9;\”|grep Level|grep -oP \”\\d+\\D+\\K\\d+\\D+\\K\\d+\”` /2.55|bc:3600000:] >[*:/bin/sh@@-c@@/usr/bin/curl \”http://wink.hub.address/set_dev_value.php\” -s -d \”nodeId=a&attrId=aprontest -u -m9 -t2 -v`echo 2.55*%2$s/1|bc`;\”]”}

Parsing JSON In JavaScript

We’ve been trying to get our BloomSky data parsed and reflected in OpenHAB — we can automatically turn the lights on when there is motion *and* the luminescence is lower than some desired value.¬† Bloomsky has an API which allows us to retrieve JSON formatted data from our weather station. I never worked with JSON before – I’d heard the term, but didn’t actually know what it was … but I needed to parse it in a JavaScript transform. Does JavaScript do JSON? D’oh! Turns out JSON is an abbreviation for JavaScript Object Notation, and JavaScript parses JSON data really well.

Still need to turn my example web code into a transform that runs from OpenHAB, but getting values out of a JSON formatted string is as easy as using the “parse” function:

	      function parseMyData() {
		var input = '{"DeviceID":"83237E","LAT":41.226644299999997,"LON":-81.7224322,"ALT":292.78720092773438,"UTC":-4,"DST":1,"Searchable":true,"RegisterTime":1464494138,"CityName":"Hinckley","StreetName":"Bellus Road","FullAddress":"Bellus Road, Hinckley, Ohio, US","DeviceName":"Buzzard Cam 01","BoundedPoint":null,"NumOfFollowers":5,"Data":{"Temperature":80.528000000000006,"ImageURL":"http://storage.googleapis.com/bloomsky-img/eaB1rJytnZSmm5y3qJ1krJqwmJmtoJU=.jpg","Humidity":50,"Night":false,"ImageTS":1465938980,"Luminance":3445,"TS":1465938980,"Rain":false,"Pressure":29.087148500000001,"Voltage":2613,"UVIndex":"1"},"Point":{},"VideoList":["http://storage.googleapis.com/bloomsky-video/eaB1rJytnZSmm5y3_-4_2016-06-09.mp4","http://storage.googleapis.com/bloomsky-video/eaB1rJytnZSmm5y3_-4_2016-06-10.mp4","http://storage.googleapis.com/bloomsky-video/eaB1rJytnZSmm5y3_-4_2016-06-11.mp4","http://storage.googleapis.com/bloomsky-video/eaB1rJytnZSmm5y3_-4_2016-06-12.mp4","http://storage.googleapis.com/bloomsky-video/eaB1rJytnZSmm5y3_-4_2016-06-13.mp4"],"NumOfFavorites":0}'

		var jsonOfInput = JSON.parse(input);

		document.write("<P>Device ID is: " + jsonOfInput.DeviceID + "</P>");
		document.write("<P>Temp is: " + jsonOfInput.Data.Temperature + "</P>");
		document.write("<P>Luminance is: " + jsonOfInput.Data.Luminance + "</P>");
	  <h2>Press the button to start</h2>
	    <input type="button" onclick="parseMyData()" value="Parse"/>